Friday, 5 October 2012

Blessed Kuriakose Elias Chavara

He was born Kuriakose Chavara on February 10, 1805, at Kainakary, Kerala, India, the son of Iko (Kuriakose) Chavara and Mariam Thoppil. He was baptized on February 17, 1805, at Chennamkary Parish Church in Alappuzha.

In his childhood,he attended the village school. There he studied language and elementary sciences. He entered the seminary in 1818 in Pallipuram where Father Thoma Palackal was the Rector. He was ordained on November 29, 1829, at Arthunkal and presided over the Holy Qurbana (Eucharist) for the first time at Chennamkary Church.
Carmelite life

Desirous of living in a religious community, Chavara joined with two other priests, Fathers Thoma Palackal and Thomas Porukara, in order to live in a community following Carmelite spirituality. The name of the community was the Servants of Mary Immaculate of Mount Carmel. The foundation for the first monastery at Mannanam was laid on May 11, 1831, and the trio took vows to form a religious community. Chavara took the additional name of "Elias", from the Carmelite tradition of his having been their founder. Palackal and Porukara died in 1841 and 1846, respectively.

Chavara became Prior General of the congregation in 1855, and under his administration the group became affiliated as a Third Order institute of the Order of Discalced Carmelites. From that point on they used the postnominal initials of T.O.C.D.
Service to the Church

Chavara became Vicar General for the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in 1861. He defended the ecclesial unity of the Church, which was threatened by schism due to the consecration by Thomas Rochos of Nestorian bishops. He worked to renew the faith in the church. He was a man of prayer with a devotion to the Eucharist and the Virgin Mary.

He was also a social reformer,an educationist and had played a major and significant role in educating women and people of lower sections of society.He first introduced the system called "A school along with every church" which was successful in making education and knowledge available for everyone for free. Thus schools in Kerala are also called 'pallikudam'('palli' means church).

Geography of Indian

Geography of Kerala

                                                                                                                       and fundamentals of computers

Vakkom Moulavi

Vakkom Muhammed Abdul Khadir Moulavi, popularly known as Vakkom Moulavi[1][2] was a social reformer, teacher, prolific writer, Muslim scholar, journalist, freedom fighter and newspaper proprietor in Travancore, a princely state of the present day Kerala, India. He was the founder and publisher of the newspaper Swadeshabhimani which was banned and confiscated by the Government of Travancore in 1910 due to its criticisms against the government and the Diwan of Travancore, P.Rajagopalachar

Moulavi was born in 1850 in Vakkom, Chirayinkil Taluk, Thiruvanthapuram in Travancore. His family had ancestral roots to Madurai and Hyderabad, and many of his relatives had worked for the military of the state government. Maulavi was proficient in many languages including Arabic, Hindusthani, Persian, Tamil, Sanskrit and English[citation needed].

His father, a prominent merchant, engaged a number of scholars from distant places, including an itinerant Arab savant, to teach him every subject he wished to learn. Moulavi made such rapid progress, that some of his teachers soon found that their stock of knowledge was exhausted and at least one of them admitted that had learnt from his student more than he could teach him.[citation needed]

Moulavi's son Abdul Kadar (Junior) was a writer, and another son, Mohammed Eeza was a writer and scholar of Islamic studies. One of his nephews, Vakkom Majeed, was an Indian freedom fighter and a former member of Travancore-Cochin State Assembly and another nephew, P.Habeeb Mohamed, was the first Muslim judge of the Travancore High Court of Kerala.

Journalism and Swadeshabhimani

 Maulavi started the Swadeshabhimani newspaper on January 19, 1905, declaring that `the paper will not hesitate to expose injustices to the people in any form`, but on 26 September 1910, the newspaper and press were sealed and confiscated by the British Police, and the editor Ramakrishna Pillai was arrested and banished from Travancore to Thirunelveli.

After the confiscation of the press, Moulavi concentrated more on social and cultural activities, becoming a social leader, also writing several books. Daussabah and Islam Matha Sidantha Samgraham are original works, while Imam Ghazali’s Keemiya-e- Saadat, Ahlu Sunnathuwal Jammath, Islamic Sandesam, Surat-ul fathiha are translations 

Social Reformation

 Maulavi was considered one of greatest reformers in the Kerala Muslim community, and is sometimes referred to as the "father of muslim renaissance".He emphasized the religious and socioeconomic aspects much more than the ritualistic aspects of religion. He also campaigned for the need for modern education, the education of women, and the elimination of potentially bad customs among the Muslim community.Influenced by the writings of Muhammad Abduh of Egypt and his reform movement, Moulavi started journals in Arabi-Malayalam and in Malayalam modelled on Al Manar.The Muslim was launched in January 1906 and was followed by Al-Islam(1918) and Deepika(1931). Through these publications, he tried to teach the Muslim community about the basic tenets of Islam. Al-Islam began publishing in April 1918 and played a pivotal role in Muslim renaissance in Kerala. It opposed Nerchas and Uroos festivals amongst the Muslim community, thereby attracting opposition from the orthodox ulema to the extent that they issued a fatwa declaring the reading of it as sacrilege. Financial troubles and lack of readership led to the closure of the journal within five issues, but it is regarded as the pioneer journal that attempted religious reform amongst the Mappilas of Kerala. While it was published in Malayalam language using Arabi-Malayalam script, Muslim and Deepika used Malayalam in script also.
As a result of the continuous campaigning of Maulavi throughout the State, the Maharaja's Government introduced the teaching of Arabic in all state schools where there were Muslim pupils, and offered them fee concessions and scholarships. Girls were totally exempted from payment of fees. Maulavi wrote text books for children to learn Arabic, and a manual for training Arabic instructors for primary schools. At the instance of Maulavi Abdul Qadir the State Government soon instituted qualifying examinations for Arabic teachers of which he was made the chief examiner.
There were many other dubious practices in the Muslim community of the time, such as the dowry system, extravagant expenditure on weddings, celebration of annual "urs" and Moharrum with bizarre unIslamic features bordering on idolatrous rituals. Maulavi launched his campaign against such practices with the help of his disciples, and with the cooperation of other learned men who shared his views and ideals.As the campaign developed into a powerful movement, opposition was mounted by the Mullahs. Some issued "fatwas" that he was a "kafir", others branded him as a "Wahhabi".[citation needed]

He also tried to create unity among Muslims, starting the All Travancore Muslim Mahajanasabha  and Chirayinkil Taluk Muslim Samagam, and worked as the chairman of the Muslim Board of the Government of Travancore. His activities were further instrumental in the establishment of "Muslim Aikya Sangham", a united Muslim forum for all the Muslims of the Travancore, Cochin and Malabar regions, and helped guide the Lajnathul Mohammadiyya Association of Alappuzha, Dharma Bhoshini Sabha of Kollam amongst others.[citation needed] In 1931, he founded the Islamia Publishing House, with his eldest son Abdussalam supervising the translation into Malayam and publication of Allama Shibli's biography of Omar Farooq in two volumes under the title Al Farooq.






N. Kumaran Asan (Malayalam:കുമാരനാശാന്‍) (1873–1924), also known as Mahakavi Kumaran Asan (the prefix Mahakavi awarded by Madras University in the year 1922 means "great poet" and the suffix Asan meaning scholar or teacher), was one of the triumvirate poets of Kerala, South India. He was also a philosopher, a social reformer and a disciple of Sree Narayana Guru.

Kumaran Asan initiated a revolution in Malayalam poetry in the first quarter of the 20th century, transforming it from the metaphysical to the lyrical. Deep moral and spiritual commitment is evident in Asan's poetry. His works are an eloquent testimony of poetic concentration and dramatic contextualization.


    Sthothrakrithikal (1901)

    This is a collection of poems. The poems published in this volume are longer than those published in Manimaala.

    Saundaryalahari (1901)

    Veenapoovu (1907)

    Asan scripted this epoch-making poem in 1907 during his sojourn in Jain Medu, Palakkad.[1] A highly philosophical poem, ‘Veena Poovu’ is an allegory of the transience of the mortal world, which is depicted through the description of the varied stages in the life of a flower. Asan describes in such detail about its probable past and the position it held. It is an intense sarcasm on people on high powers/positions finally losing all those. The first word Ha, and the last word Kashtam of the entire poem is often considered as a symbolism of him calling the world outside "Ha! kashtam".

Oru Simhaprasavam (1909)
    Nalini (Subtitle: Allengkil Oru Sneham) (1911)

    Leela (1914)

    A deep love story in which Leela leaves madanan, her lover and returns to find him in forest in a pathetic condition. She thus realizes the fundamental fact 'Mamsanibhadamalla ragam' (Love is not an artifact of flesh)

    Sribuddhacharitham (1915)

    This is an epic poem (perhaps Kumaran Asan's longest work), written in couplets and divided into five parts.

    Baalaraamaayanam (1916)

    This is a shorter epic poem consisting of 267 verses. Most of these verses are couplets, with the exception of the last three quatrains. There are, therefore, 540 lines in all.

    Graamavrikshattile Kuyil (1918)
    Prarodanam (1919)
    Chintaavishtayaaya Sita (1919)
    Pushpavaadi (1922)
    Duravasthha (1922)
    Chandaalabhikshuki (1922)

    This poem, divided into four parts and consisting of couplets, describes an untouchable beggar-woman" (also the name of the poem) who approaches Lord Ananda near Sravasti.

    Karuna (1923)

    Manimaala (1924)

    This is a collection of short poems.

    Vanamaala (1925)

    This is a larger collection of poems of varying length.

Kumaran Asan also wrote many other poems. Some of these poems are listed in the book Asante Padyakrthikal under the name "Mattu Krthikal" (Other Works):

    Sariyaaya Parishkaranam

    Pravaasakaalaththu Naattile Ormakal

    This is another collection of poems that come from various letters Kumaran Asan wrote over the course of several years. None of the poems were longer than thirty-two lines.

    Koottu Kavitha

The other poems are lesser known. Only a few of them have names:


    Oru Kathth

    This is another one of Asan's letter-poems.

    Randu Aasamsaapadyangal



Dr. Palpu

Dr. P. Palpu was born on November 2nd 1863 at Trivandrum, in Kerala State. He remains ever an example of the persecution that the backward communities suffered in Kerala in those days. Though he came fourth in the examination conducted in 1884 by the Govt. for selecting ten students for the study of medicine, Palpu was denied the opportunity just because of his caste. But, he had no difficulty in getting admission to the Madras Medical College for the L.M.S. course. After getting the medical degree, he was again rebuffed by the Travancore Government when he applied for job in his native state. He was forced out to the neighboring state of Mysore for his employment just as he was sent out of the State for his higher education. He started his meritorious service under Mysore Govt. at the starting salary of Rs.100 when the Govt. of his own State would not give employment to any one from the backward classes even at the lowest level at the meager salary of five rupees.

The determination of Dr. Palpu to gain equality for the members of his caste found expression in the formation of S.N.D.P. in 1903. It was the advice given by Swami Vivekananda to associate with some spiritual person in his effort to fight for the rights of the Ezhavas that drew him to Sri Narayana Guru. The Swami asked Dr. Palpu to “Spiritualize and Industrialize the Masses”. Swami told him that the garb of spirituality was essential for any organization to be successful in India. S.N.D.P. later became thus beacon for many social movements in Kerala

His concern for the depressed was not limited to the people of the caste to which he belonged. The sight of many poor people in Mysore who spent nights in public places without any shelter to protect themselves from the severe cold moved his heart to spend some money out of his first salary for getting blankets for these helpless people. While in Mysore, Dr. Palpu helped the Valigar community there to form an association to fight for their birthrights.

Dr. Palpu was a relentless fighter for the cause of the Ezhavas in Kerala. He wrote many articles in English newspapers published from India highlighting the degrading customs in Kerala that made the condition of the Ezhavas miserable. He published at his own cost the book, ‘Treatment of Thiyas in Travancore’, a compilation of the memorandums that were submitted to the Travancore Govt., and the articles that he wrote in newspapers. This book, and its translation that he published in Malayalam, became records for the future generations to know about the horrible social situation that existed at that time.

Ezhava Memorial’ and ‘Malayali Memorial’ were two landmarks in the struggle of the backward classes for gaining their legitimate rights from the Govt. that was representative of the mad social customs that prevailed in the state at that time. ‘Malayali Memorial’ which was submitted to the Maharaja of Travancore in 1891 marked the beginning of the united social effort in the state to press the demands of the backward classes. This mass petition in which Dr. Palpu was the third signatory complained about the ‘Divans’ (govt. officers) who came from outside the state, and appropriated a greater part of the jobs for their own people. The memorandum spoke about the pitiable condition of Ezhavas of the State who were denied even the lowest govt. jobs though their counterparts could occupy even higher jobs in the Malabar State due to the absence of any discrimination there. The Govt. in its reply dated 1891 April 21st stated that since the Ezhavas were generally uneducated, it was better for them to pursue their present occupations like cultivation, coir making, and toddy tapping than trying to get education.

As Dr. Palpu was irritated by this humiliating reply from the authorities, he frequently visited the state to organize the backward people to protest against the callousness of the rulers. He realized that organized protest was the only way to put an end to the inhuman discretion that the Govt. practiced against the majority of its own people. He soon formed the ‘Greater Ezhava Association’, and more than 300 people attended its first meeting held at Thiruvananthapuram. The meeting decided to submit a mass petition to the govt. signed by ten thousand Ezhavas demanding the abolition of the discrimination against them. Dr. Palpu himself took the initiative to get the signatures, and on 1896 Sept. 3rd the petition, the historically famous ‘Ezhava Memorial’, signed by 13176 people was submitted to the Govt. In the memorandum Dr. Palpu enumerated as an example the humiliations that the members of his own family had to suffer from Govt.

His next move was to bring to the attention of the British Parliament the injustices done by the Travancore Govt. to the Ezhavas, and the difficulties that they experienced in the social life in the state. Dr. Palpu sent Barrister G.P.Pillai with a letter secured from Sister Niveditha, the disciple of Swami Vivekananda, to England to get some Member of the British Parliament to represent the case of the Ezhavas. Dr. Palpu shared the major part of the expenditure. In addition to this, when he went to England for higher studies, he got Deadbeat Navroji who was a member of the British Parliament to raise a question regarding the condition of Ezhavas in the Parliament. With his help a memorandum was submitted to the State Secretary for India. All these measures taken by the doctor began to have results at home when the British Govt. began to enquire about the condition of the Ezhavas in the State.

Dr. Palpu maintained close contacts with several national leaders like Swami Vivekananda and Sarojini Naidu. Sarojini Naidu praised Dr. Palpu as a great revolutionary when someone tried to brand him as a communalist. When Swami Vivekananda visited Mysore, the doctor had the rare opportunity of pulling him in a rickshaw through the streets of the city. It was during this contact that the Swami advised him to “Spiritualize and Industrialize the Masses.” The Mysore Govt. sent him to Europe to get training in lymph production when he was the in charge of the Vaccine Institute. Dr. Palpu showed the rare courage of treating patients when plague struck Bangalore killing about 15 thousand people. Another example of his humanism was in his disobedience as the Jail Superintendent to execute two prisoners whom he considered innocent when he went through their case. During his tenure as the Jail Superintendent, he made many innovations for the production of useful things out of discarded and useless things.

After his retirement from Mysore service he started ‘Malabar Economic Union’ for the industrialization of the region, and the profits from the venture were spent for the welfare of the public. The country lost a great revolutionary leader when he breathed his last on 1950, January 25th, the day before India became a republic. He was the revolutionaries’ revolutionary in the sense that he changed people like Kumaran Asan, T.K.Madhavan, and Sahodharan Ayyappan into great social leaders who also fought for the betterment of the backward classes in the State. It must be remembered here that Dr. Nataraja Guru, who founded Sri. Narayana Gurukulam for the propagation of the ideals of Sri Narayana Guru was the son of Dr. Palpu




Bhattathiripad was born to Nambudiri Brahmin parents in Kaippilly Mana at Kidangoor, a village near Angamaly, Kerala state. He encouraged widow marriage in the Brahmin society and tried to reform the conservative practices of the "Namboodiri community in particular and the society at large.". He conducted the first mixed-race marriage in the Brahmin society. He is credited with starting the progressive theater movement of Kerala during which "the stage and performance became a highly conscious social activity in the hands of social reformers and political activists". His drama Adukkalayilninnum arangathekku was a turning point in this context:

    The year 1929 is most significant in the sense that V. T. Bhattathiripad wrote his play Adukkalayil Ninnu Arangathekku. It was the first play in Malayalam to have a definite and concrete social objective and which was produced in 1929 itself as part of a very powerful social reformist movement led by Namboodiri Yogakshema Sabha. The degenerate Brahmanical ideology and its social structure had its first powerful assault from within for the first time and the most fervent slogan of the period was for the transformation of "Brahmans into human beings".

The V. T. Bhattathiripad College in Sreekrishnapuram, Palakkad District, is named after him.



Mannathu Padmanabha Pillai

Mannathu Padmanabhan (January 2, 1878 - February 25, 1970) was a social reformer and a freedom fighter from the State of Kerala, India. He is recognised as the founder of the Nair Service Society, which claims to represent the Nair community that constitutes almost 14.5% of the population of the state. Padmanabhan is considered as a visionary reformer who organised the Nair community under the NSS
Mannathu Padmanathan was born in Perunna village in Changanassery, Travancore, British India on 2 January 1878 to Eswaran Namboothiri of Nilavana Illam and Mannathu Parvathy Amma. He began his career as a teacher in 1893 in a Government primary school. After a few years, from 1905 he changed his profession and started practising law, in the Magistrates Courts.

Nair Service Society

On 31st October, 1914 with the help of a few others, he established the Nair Service Society. His main ambition was to uplift the status of the Nair community. From 1915 onwards, he gave up law practice and became full-time secretary of the Nair Service Society[3]. Mannam revived and reshaped the old concept of village societies, the Karayogams, which practically set the tenor of family and village life. In 1924-25 the NSS persuaded the Travancore Government to enact the Nair Regulation which broke up the materiarchal joint family providing for paternal and maternal property to divided mong all the children.

He fought for social equality, the first phase of being the Vaikom Satyagraha, demanding the public roads near the temple at Vaikom be opened to low caste Hindus. In 1924 he took part in the Vaikom and Guruvayoor temple-entry and anti-untouchability agitation. He opened his family temple for everyone, irrespective of caste distinction He became a member of the Indian National Congress in 1947 and took part in the agitation against Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Iyer’s administration in Travancore.. As the first president of Travancore Devaswom Board he revitalised many temples which had almost ceased to function.

In 1949 Padmanabhan became a member of the Travancore Legislative Assembly. In 1959 he along with Christian Churches led a united opposition against the State Communist Ministry, which became known as the Vimochana Samaram (liberation struggle). The cause of the Vimochana Samaram was the introduction of an Education Bill by the Minister of Education, Joseph Mundassery, and the movement caused the dismissal of the Communist government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad on 31 July 1959. The consequence of this was the beginning of President’s rule in the state under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution.

Padmanabhan was involved with the Nair Service Society as its Secretary for 31 years and as its President for three years. He was honoured with the title Bharata Kesari by the President of India. He also received Padma Bhushan in 1966



Pandit Karuppan

Pandit Karuppan was a poet, dramatist, and social reformer who lived in Kerala, India. He was born on May 24, 1885, at Cheranelloor, near Ernakulam.
 K.P. Karuppan (Kandathiparambil Paapu Karuppan) was born into a lower middle class family of Dheevara fishermen community.

Karuppan’s father was Paappu (locally known as Atho Poojari); his mother was Kochu Pennu. Atho Poojari had inherited skills in Ayurveda and knowledge in Sanskrit; and engaged himself in priestly practice of poojas and rituals.

The Malayalam meaning of Karuppan is "person of black colour," but, ironically, Karuppan had a very fair complexion. Though Karuppan’s childhood name was Sankaran, the name Karuppan was contributed by a Tamil Gosai who was a frequent family visitor. He predicted that the boy would become a great scholar and suggested the name Karpan ("a learned person," in Tamil), which later turned into Karuppan.

Karuppan’s formal education began at the age of five under Azheekkal Velu Vaidyan, a relative. Subsequently, Vadakke Valath Appu Asan, a local Guru, taught him Amarakosham, Sidhdharoopam, and Sreeramodantham, the basics of Sanskrit. A prolific reader, the boy read books including Ithihasas and Puranas. His first poem was Sthothramandaaram. The prodigy took his Gurus by surprise when he wrote Lankamardanam, at the age of 12, with slokas styled in Shardoolavikreeditham.

Karuppan studied Sanskrit Kavyas under Mangalappillil Krishnan Asan of Cherai and returned to Cheranelloor to study with Annamanada Rama Pothuval. There, as was the prevailing custom, upper-caste Hindu students did not allow him to sit along with them and hence he sat isolated in a corner. He studied the Kavyas Makham and Nyshadham and Bhoja Chambu from Rama Pothuval.

The most significant period of his education was at Kodungalloor. The Kodungallur Kovilakam was a place of learning, due to the resident luminaries. Adult life

Karuppan’s famous work Jaathikkummi, which criticised the prevailing caste system, was written during the period of his study at Kodungallur Kovilakam, and it became popular among the poor communities. Jaathikkummi appeared to be the pioneer attempt in Malayalam literature questioning the caste system and untouchability. When Sree Narayana Guru, Kumaran Asan and Ayyankali worked for social changes in the Travancore State, the presentation of Jaathikkummi was the first step initiated in that direction in Cochin State by Karuppan, who was then a 19-year-old student. Kumaran Asan’s Duravastha was published 10 years later. Though most of Karuppan’s writings were in scholarly Sanskrit, Jaathikkummi was written in a very simple Malayalam folklore form that illiterate people from the local communities were able to spread by word of mouth.
Teaching career

Karuppan’s talents in Sanskrit came to the notice of Rajarshi Ramavarma Raja, the Maharaja of Cochin, who visited Kodungalloor to worship at the famous Thiruvanchikkulam Siva Temple. Kunhikkuttan Thampuran introduced Karuppan to the King. The Maharaja was impressed and invited Karuppan to his Palace in Tripunithura. The meeting was a turning point for Karuppan, the Maharaja arranged advanced study of Sanskrit for him under ‘Sahridayathilkan’ Rama Pisharody, the principal Guru of the Royal family. Karuppan studied ‘Sidhantha Koumudi’, ‘Manorama’ and ‘Sahithee Darpanam’ from Rama Pisharody. Soon Karuppan was appointed Sanskrit Teacher at St. Theresa’s Convent Girls’ High School in Ernakulam.

When Pandit Karuppan was appointed Sanskrit Teacher in the Caste Girls’ High School at Ernakulam in 1912—a special institution exclusively for upper caste girls—there was vehement protest from upper-caste Hindus against his posting, and they were reluctant to send their girls to study under a low caste man. But the Maharaja of Cochin overruled against the objections, and threatened that girls unwilling to study under Karuppan would be sent out from the school. The protests ended there. After leaving the staff of Caste Girls’ High School, he joined the Victoria Girls’ High School, Thrissur, as a teacher in 1918. Subsequently, he was posted at Teacher Training School there. In 1921, he was again appointed at Girls’ High School, Ernakulam, which had by then removed "Caste" from its name.
Legislative Council

During his second tenure at Girls' High School, in August 1925, he was nominated as a member of the Cochin Legislative Council to represent the hitherto disenfranchised classes, in recognition of his tireless crusade for their emancipation through writings and campaigns. As MLC, Karuppan presented their problems and grievances before the authorities and emphasized that the Government must redress their wrongs by providing education, health services and better living conditions for the people who lacked them. He pressed the Government to establish a separate Department for this purpose; this led to the creation of the Department for the Protection of the Depressed Classes with then-Director of Public Instruction Rao Sahib C. Mathai as ex-officio Protector, and Karuppan as full-time Assistant Protector.

As Assistant Protector, Karuppan was instrumental in initiating several reforms for the progress of the depressed classes, by starting schools and establishing colonies. He persuaded the Government to provide scholarships, fee concessions, and a number of other incentives for the education of children from the depressed classes. He wrote Aacharabhooshanam to generate awareness among the depressed classes against superstitions; the book was printed by the Government and distributed free of cost to the public. The Depressed Classes Department was later renamed the Harijan Welfare Department.

Pandit Karuppan was instrumental in starting fishery schools under the re-organised Fisheries Department. The establishment of fish curing yards helped to promote fisheries as a potential industry and to improve living conditions in the fishing community. While serving as a director in the Cochin Central Co-operative Bank, he urged fishermen and agricultural labourers to form co-operatives for progress through self-reliance.

Karuppan was very sincere to the cause of the depressed classes in spirit, word and deed. When his three-year term on the Legislative Council expired, Karuppan was nominated for a second term, but he requested that the Diwan give the post to a member of the depressed classes. Under pressure from Karuppan, the Government appointed P.C. Chanchen, a Pulaya leader, as MLC; Karuppan tendered his resignation to make way for Chanchen.

Pandit Karuppan was then appointed as Secretary to the Elementary Education Committee and the Bhashaparishkarana Committee. In 1931, he assumed the newly created post of Superintendent of Vernacular Education, Cochin State. In 1935, he was appointed Malayalam Lecturer in the Maharaja’s College. During those periods, Karuppan had also functioned as Chairman of the Board of Examiners of the Madras University, and as Member of the Municipal Council, Ernakulam.
Dramatic works

Baalakalesam is one of Pandit Karuppan's significant contributions. On the eve of the Shashtipoorthi celebrations of the Maharaja of Cochin in 1919, the King’s admirer, Rao Sahib Nanperumal Chetty of Tamil Nadu, organized a drama script competition. Karuppan wrote a drama, under compulsion from Guru Rama Pisharody, within just 10 days. Nervous and embarrassed to treat his beloved Maharaja as a character for the stage, Karuppan gave symbolic names to the characters in the drama. His creation was judged best, and won the prize. It was named Baalaakalesam, Karuppan’s famous work in which "Queen Baala" was the State of Cochin and "Kalesan" her Lord, the King. The drama, dedicated to the Maharaja of Cochin, discussed the condition of the State before Kalesan became the King, and the progress the State achieved during his 16-year rule. The author did not forget to criticize the evils and atrocities suffered by poor innocent people in the name of caste. Baalaakalesam was first staged in Maharaja’s College, Ernakulam. Karuppan’s friend Kottilil Narayana Marar, who was an upper caste Hindu, provided financial assistance with printing the book.

The drama became a topic of discussion among scholars.[who?] The Maharaja honoured Karuppan with the title Kavithilakan, or Great Poet. The poet and luminary Keralavarma Valiakoithampuran of Travancore, known as Kerala Kalidasan for his translation of Shakunthalam into Malayalam, was very pleased, and conferred the Title of Vidwan upon Karuppan in 1913.

The drama also carried suggestions for future reforms, like the formation of village Panchayaths, the constitution of a Legislative Council, construction of a Harbour at Cochin, etc. After reading the drama's script, Sree Moolam Thirunal Maharaja of Travancore presented a nine-jewelled gold ring (Navarathna Mothiram) to Karuppan. While submitting the copy of Baalaakalesam, Karuppan made a humble request to the Maharaja of Travancore: that he belonged to a poor community of fishermen, and students hailing from the community be encouraged to reach the mainstream through education (for which fee concession would help them). The King promptly sanctioned a half-fee concession to all students of Dheevara community in Travancore State, in appreciation of Karuppan’s struggle for the betterment of backward communities.
Social reforms

Karuppan decided to quit his teaching job to spend more time and energy spearheading social reforms. With this purpose, he organized the people of his own community into regional groups called Sabhās. The main agenda of the Sabhās was to persuade people to fight ignorance and superstitions. He put strong pressure on his fellow countrymen to become better educated and accept a healthier lifestyle. He organized the first Sabhā, Kalyanadayini Sabhā, at Anapuzha, Kodungalloor. Another Sabhā was Jnanodayam Sabhā, founded at Edacochin. Sudharma Sooryodaya Sabhā (Thevara), Prabodha Chandrodayam Sabhā (North Paravur), Araya Vamsodharani Sabhā (Engandiyoor), and Sanmarga Pradeepa Sabhā (Kumbalam) are other Sabhās that Pandit Karuppan patronized.

He gave equal emphasis to the emancipation of other communities as well, evident from the formulation of the Cochin Pulaya Maha Sabhā for the uplift of the Pulaya community. Treated as untouchables by the upper caste Hindus, they were not allowed to assemble in any common place for meetings. Therefore, to keep such meetings away from the eyes of the landlords, Karuppan asked the Pulayas to come in rowboats to the expanse of the Ernakulam backwaters and tie their boats together. There, he addressed them on a wooden-planked platform, and charted out strategies for their emancipation by forming a Sabhā for them as well. Accordingly, Cochin Pulaya Maha Sabhā was constituted. Subsequently, Karuppan persuaded other communities like Velas, Sambavas, Ulladas, Kudumbis, etc., to also form similar Sabhās, to give momentum to their fight against social evils and discrimination.

Pandit Karuppan was highly diplomatic when he undertook social activities. The caste system was present in Cochin State, and the Pulayas were prohibited from entering the streets of Ernakulam or walking on important public roads. Karuppan waited for a favourable opportunity to tackle the issue. The Government organized an exhibition of agricultural products, in which Diwan W.H. Bhore, I.C.S was the guest of honor, on the foreshore of Ernakulam. Karuppan, during his speech, brought to the attention of the Diwan that the Pulayas, who had laboured hard to cultivate the agricultural products showcased in the exhibition, were not allowed to see the Exhibition. Touched by the words of Karuppan, the Diwan ordered the organizers to allow the Pulayas to enter the grounds. Immediately, Karuppan took them to the exhibition site in a procession. (Karuppan had already asked the Pulayas to come in country crafts and wait on the backwaters.) From that day, the Pulayas could enter Ernakulam Town; Karuppan secured the right to walk on public roads for the Pulayas and other depressed classes.
Personal life

Pandit Karuppan loved all religions. He had a special appreciation for Christianity, which had helped in Kerala’s education by starting a number of educational institutions that admitted students without discrimination of religion or caste. When His Grace Alexis Henry Leppeesier (the representative of the Pope from the Vatican) visited Cochin in 1925, Karuppan wrote a welcome poem. Karuppan had also written poems highlighting the greatness of Sri Budha and Muhamed Nabi. Aggrieved by the death of Sree Chattambi Swamikal, Karuppan wrote a condolence poem namely Samadhi Sapthakam.

Pandit Karuppan’s wife Kunhamma, who had talents in music, hailed from Panambukad. The couple lived in Sahithyakudeeram, a house situated on the side of the canal near the St. Teresa’s College, Ernakulam, with their only daughter Parvathy.

Pandit Karuppan died on March 23, 1938, at the age of 53, due to pleurisy